(page 15 continued)
85. September, 1839, before hearing of. the proceedings of the preliminary
expedition, four of the Company's ships sailed from Gravesend, viz.:
"Cuba," surveying ship, with Captain Smith, R.A., and staff, "Aurora"
(arrived at Port Nicholson, January 22, 1840), "Oriental," "Adelaide,"
conveying the first body of pioneer settlers who commenced the
systematic British colonization of New Zealand. Other vessels speedily
followed, and before the end of the year 1840, 1200 settlers had disembarked
at Port Nicholson. The foundation of Wellington (first called Britannia)
dates from the 22nd January, 1840.
86. The Colonial Office was completely surprised at the energetic action
of the New Zealand Company. Queen Victoria's Government had been
hesitating about sending a Consul to New Zealand ever since the formation
of the Republican Association at the Bay of Islands, in 1838, and the New
Zealand Company's proceedings decided the question. Letters patent were
issued under the great seal of the United Kingdom, on the 15th June, 1839,
extending the boundaries of New South Wales to include any part of New
Zealand that may be acquired in sovereignty by Her Majesty. .
87. CONSTITUTION OF THE COLONY;-- 'l'he Bill of Rights: Declaring the
rights and liberties of the subject; and among them, the right to petition
and to have arms for defence. I Will. and Mary, Sess. II., c. 2.
The Act of Settlement: For the further limitation of the Crown, and the
better securing the rights and liberties of the subject, 12 and 13 Will.
IIl., c. 2. The Colony created: Provision under which New Zealand was
created a separate Colony. 3 and 4 Viet., c. 62, s. 2.
88. Captain William Hobson, R.N., who visited New Zealand in 1837,
when commanding H.M.S. "Rattlesnake," in 1837, was immediately
ordered out for the purpose of erecting the country into a British colony.
The Treasury minutes of 19th July, 1839, directs him to proceed to New
Zealand as Consul, to endeavour to obtain the sovereignty of the country,
and then to act as Lieutenant-Governor. Captain Hobson sailed in H.M.S.
"Druid," 44 guns, Captain Lord J. Churchill, and after a prosperous
voyage reached Sydney, December, 1839, took the oaths of office as
Lieutenant-Governor of New Zealand, and sailed from Sydney, accompanied
by a Treasurer, a Collector of Customs, a Police Magistrate, two Clerks, a
Sergeant, and four Troopers of the Mounted Police of New South Wales,
and landed at the Bay of Islands, 29th January, 1840.
89. Captain Hobson, immediately on his arrival, issued an invitation to
all the British subjects to meet him next day at the Church at Kororareka,
and circulated notices, printed in the Maori Language, that on the 5th
February, he would hold a meeting of the chiefs of the confederation, and
of the chiefs who had not signed the Declaration of Independence, for the
purpose of discussing a treaty to be proposed ror their consideration.
89A. The first New Zealand newspaper published was the New Zealand
Gazette, No.1, published in London, August 21, 1839. The second number
of this paper was published in Port Nicholson, April 18th, 1840, by Samuel
Revans, a distinguished pioneer settler, and the father of the Press in New
Zealand. (See J. H. Wallace's Early History of New Zealand.)
90. At a meeting of the settlers on the following day (February 6), two
commissions were read, one under the Great Seal, extending the limits of New
South Wales to include New Zealand; the other under the royal signet, appoint¬-
ing Captain Hobson, Lieutenant-Governor over such portions of New Zealand
as shall hereafter be added to Her Majesty's dominions. Two proclamations,
framed by Sir George Gipps, were afterwards promulgated. The first
asserted Her Majesty's authority over all British subjects in New Zealand,
and the second announced the illegality of any title to land not confirmed.
by the Crown. .
91. The Treaty of Waitangi: The first meeting at which this treaty was
presented to the northern chiefs for their approval and adoption, was held at
Mr. Busby's station, at Waitangi, on the 5th and 6th of February, 1840;
and which was fully reported by the Lieutenant-Governor to H. E. Sir
George Gipps, in a despatch, dated Her Majesty's ship "Herald," Bay of
Islands, 5th February, 1840; (See fac-similes of the Declaration of
Independence and the Treaty of Waitangi, page 7, Wellington, by authority,
George Didsbury. Government Printer, 1877; see also J. H. Wallace's
Early History of New Zealand, for a copy of this important historical
document, with a series of copies of the Treaty itself as finally adopted,
signed by the principal chiefs in various parts of both Islands, with their
signatures, marks, or signs, or from the tatoo on the writer's own face,
attested by responsible witnesses.)
92. From Waitangi, the treaty was taken about the country by mission¬-
aries and Government agents for signature. Captain Hobson took it in
person to Hokianga, and up the river Thames. Other emissaries were
despatched with it to the eastern and western coasts of the North Island, to
Cook's Strait, Stewart's Island, and the Middle Island. Before the end of
June, 1840, 512 signatures had been obtained to it.
93. The French attempt to colonize New Zealand: The "Comte de Paris,"
having on board emigrants, had left France in October, 1839, for Akaroa in
the Middle Island, and the French frigate "L' Aube" was on the eve of
sailing for the same destination, with the intention of founding a French
colony, under an Association denominated the Nauto-Bordelaise Company.
A few days before the "Comte de Paris" arrived at her destination, H.M.S.
"Britomart," Captain Stanley, arrived at Akaroa, and immediately hoisted
the British flag, and held a Magisterial Court. The sovereignty and
occupancy of Britain was formally proclaimed, before the arrival of either
the French frigate "L'Aube," or the "Comte de Paris" with the emigrants.
The New Zealand Company ultimately purchased the claim of the Nauto¬-
Bordelaise Company for £4,500. (See J. H. Wallace's Early History of
94. Auckland, the first seat of government, was established at the site
of the present town of Russell, a few miles distant from Kororareka, in the
Bay of Islands, but alter a while it was found to be an unsuitable place for
the capital, in consequence of an insufficiency of available land. This led
to the choice of another site, on the right bank of the Waitemata and on
the 19th September, 1840, the British flag was hoisted at Auckland, the name
given to the future capital. The choice was ultimately confirmed by Her
Majesty's Government, and in January, 1841, Captain Hobson took up his
abode there. This was one year after the New Zealand Company had
commenced the systematic colonization of the country.
95. The British settlers at Port Nicholson (Britannia, afterwards Welling-¬
ton), the first and principal settlement of the New Zealand Company, in the
absence of any form of government for the preservation of order and mainten¬-
ance of law, established a provisional constitution, Colonel William Wakefield,
president, and in the first newspaper published in the colony -- April 18, 1840 --
issued an "Address from the Committee of Colonists, calling the attention of
the colonists to two documents published in this day's Gazette. One, the
agreement, or contract of government, signed in London by the authority of
the immigrants; and the other, a ratification of that agreement, subject to
certain modifications by the sovereign chiefs of the district." The ratification
signed and published by S. Revans, secretary; numerous appointments were
made. The Committee of Colonists met several times, and the "Council"
transacted public business till May 23, 1840. Lieutenant-Governor Hobson
issued a proclamation declaring the proceedings of the Council illegal, and
at the same time informed the secretary of State for the Colonies, "according
to my opinion, unaided by legal advice, the proceedings of the Association
at Port Nicholson amount to high treason." (Official documents, and full
details in J. H. Wallace's Early History of New Zealand.)
98. On the 21st May, 1840, the Governor proclaimed the sovereignty
over the North Island by virtue of the Treaty of Waitangi, and over the
Southern Islands, on the ground of discovery.
97. The visit to New Zealand of Lady Franklin: On the 3rd March,
1841, H.M.S. "Favorite" visited Wellington, having Lady Franklin,
the wife of the Governor of Van Dieman's Land, and her suite, as
passengers. Lady Franklin was completing a tour of the Australian
Colonies. Before her departure from Wellington, a congratulatory address
was presented to her Ladyship by a deputahon from the settlers, which
alluded to the friendly feeling displayed towards them by Sir John Franklin,
and to her literary and scientific acquirements. (J. H. Wallace's Early
History of New Zealand.)
NOTE.-- Sir John Franklin, with Captains Crozier and Fitz-James, in
H.M. ships "Erebus," and "Terror" (carrying in all 138 persons), sailed
on his third arctic expedition of discovery and survey, from Greenhithe, on
24th May, 1845. Their last despatches were from the Walefish Islands,
dated 12th July, 1845. Their protracted absence caused intense anxiety,
and several expeditions were sent from England and elsewhere in search of
them, and coals, provisions, clothing, and other necessities were deposited in
various places in the Arctic seas, by our own, and by the American Govern¬-
ment, by Lady Franklin, and numerous private persons. (Haydn's
Dictionary of Dates, London, 1881, p. 345.)
"THE NORTH-WEST PASSAGE was discovered by Sir John Franklin and
his companions, who sailed down Peel and Victoria Straits, since named
Franklin Strait. On the monument in Waterloo Place is inscribed. 'To
Franklin and his brave companions, who sacrificed their lives in completing
the discovery of the North-West Passage, A.D., 1847-8.' Lady Franklin
received a medal from the Royal Geographical Society." (Haydn's Dictionary
of Dates, London, 1881, p. 563.) "A bronze statue (above life size) has
been erected in memory of Franklin, on the spot where he resided at Old
Government House, Hobart Town, now called Franklin Square. It stands
on a pedestal of polished granite, with an inscription." (History of
Tasmania, by James Fenton, London, Macmillan and Co., 1884, p. 160.)
98. In June, 1840, Willoughby Shortland, Colonial Secretary, made an
official visit to Port Nicholson, and informed. the Lieutenant-Governor of
the loyalty of the settlers. "I was again assured of the loyalty of the settlers,
and that they were actuated in their proceedings solely with a view to
preserve the peace, and to protect their property."
98A. Ascent of Mount Egmont, December, 1840, by Dr. Dieffenbach.
"However, we at length reached the summit, and found that it consisted of
a field of snow about a square mile in extent. A most extensive view
opened before us, and our eye followed the line of coast towards Kawia and
Waikato." (Travels in New Zealand, by Emest Dieffenbach, M.D.,
Naturalist to the New Zealand Company, London, Murray. 1843,
Vol. i., pp. 156-157.)
99. On June 15, 1840, the first newspaper was published in the North -¬
"The New Zealand Advertiser, and Bay of Islands Gazette " -- published
100. The purchase of the Chatham Islands by Colonel Wakefield, who
sent the "Cuba," in July, 1840, with Mr. R. D. Hanson, an eminent pioneer
settler (afterwards Sir R. D. Hanson, Chief Justice or South Australia), on
board to negotiate with the natives. The Company abandoned the claim,
the Crown lawyers having declared the purchase of the Chatham Islands
illegal, and the Chatham Islands were declared a dependency of New
Zealand. (J. H. Wallace's Early History of New Zealand.)
100A. New Zealand erected into a separate Colony: A charter for
"erecting the Colony of New Zealand, and for erecting and establishing a
Legislative and an Executive Council, and for granting certain powers and
authority to the Governor for the time being of the said colony," was signed
by the Queen, on the 16th of November, 1840. This charter, or letters
patent defined the Colony of New Zealand to consist of the group of islands
lying between 34deg. 30min. and 47deg. 10min. south latitude, and 166deg.
5min. and 179deg. east longitude; and declared that the three principal
islands, heretofore known as the Northern, Middle, and Stewart's Island,
should henceforth be designated and known respectively as New Ulster,
New Munster, and New Leinster. These documents were published in the
Colony on the 3rd May, 1841.
100B. The birthday of the Colony: The 14th January, 1840, cannot be
claimed as the birthday of the Colony, since on that day New Zealand
entered into bondage as a dependency of New South Wales, and became
subject to her laws; neither can the 21st May, 1840, the date or the
proclamation of the Queen's sovereignty over the islands, be called her
birthday, as the status of the colony was in no way altered by that
proclamation. The better right seems to indicate the 16th November, 1840,
as the true birth of the colony, when she was created an independency, the
news whereof was proclaimed at Aucklaud, on the 3rd May, 1841," (lndex
to the Laws of New Zealand, fifth edition, by John Curnin, B.A., of the
Inner Temple, Wellington, 1885, page 1.
101. The Legislative Council was to consist of not less than six persons,
nominated by the Crown, and holding office during its pleasure, with power
to make laws and ordinances for the colony, conformable to instructions
from the Queen in Council : the Executive Council to be composed of three
of the principal members of the Government, to assist and advise the
Governor, who was to be nominated by the crown. The first meeting of the
Council was held at Auckland, in May, 1841.
102. Captain Hobson was appointed Governor and Commander-in-Chief
of the new colony, and instructions were issued under the Royal sign manual,
dated the 5th of December, 1840, prescribing his powers and duties, and
those of the Legislative Council.
103. A Civil List was drawn up, fixing the salary of the Governor, Chief•
Justice, Colonial Seoretary, Surveyor-General, Collector of Customs,
Attorney-General, Protector of Aborigines, and the expenses attending
their several departments. An annual grant was voted by the British
Parliament, in addition to the duties levied in New Zealand, to defray the
expenses of the Government. (See Colonial Gazettes and Parliamentary
104. A Charter was issued to the New Zealand Company, on the 12th
February, 1841, after considerable negotiations with the British Government.
105. Soon after the foundation of the New Zealand Company's first and
principal settlement at Port Nicholson (Wellington), a settlement was formed I
at Wanganui, 1840-1.
106. Formation of New Plymouth settlement: In the month of February,
1840, an Association was formed in the West of England, termed the "New
Plymouth Company," founded by colonists chiefly from the West of England.
The pioneer vessel, "William Bryan," left Plymouth, 19th November,
1840, arrived at New Plymouth, March 28, 1841. On the departure from
England of the "William Bryan," a grand fete was given by the Plymouth
Company, at the Royal Assembly Rooms, Plymouth, Friday, October 30,
1840, the Earl of Devon in the chair. A large assembly of the nobility and .
gentry were present; numerous speeches were made, Mr. E. G. Wakefield
delivering an interesting address. (See J. H. Wallace's Early History of
107. Interest in England taken in colonizing operations: A dinner was
given by the Directors of the New Zealand Company to Lord John Russell,
Her Majesty's principal Secretary of State for the Colonies, and about two
hundred distinguished guests and friends invited to meet his Lordship at
the London Tavern, Saturday, February 13, 1841; and from its intrinsic
nature and antecedent circumstances, excited unusual interest in the city of
London. (See J. H. Wallace's Early History of New Zealand.)
108. New Zealand created an independent diocese: On the separation of
the colony from that of New South Wales, an application was made to the
Imperial Government to constitute the Islands of New Zealand an indepen-¬
dent diocese, and on the 17th October, 1841, Dr. George Augustus Selwyn,
Fellow of St. John's College, Cambridge, was appointed the first Bishop of
New Zealand, and with a suite of clergymen sailed for his diocese by way of
Sydney, in the end of 1841, arriving at Auckland, on the 29th May, 1842.
He appointed clergymen to reside at Wellington, Nelson, and New Plymouth;
but afterwards devoted his attention principally to the foundation of a
college near the missionary establishment in the north, and to superintending
the Church Missionaries in the conversion of the large native population in
that part of the colony.
109. Captain Liardet, a distinguished officer of the British Royal
Navy, was appointed the agent of the New Plymouth Company. He sailed
for New Zealand, in the barque "Whitby," 347 tons, Captain Lacy, on the
27 April, 1841, arrived at Wellington, September 18, 1841, and proceeded to
New Plymouth, where he met with a gun accident, which deprived
him. of his sight, November, 1841; having partially recovered, he sailed for
England, by way of Sydney, February, 1842.
110. The Manakau Company formed: Late in the year 1841, twenty-
seven settlers from Great Britain arrived in the Manakau harbour. These
colonists were sent out by a Scotch Colonization Company, which claimed
19,000 acres of land, purchased from the natives in 1835, by a Mr. Mitchell,
and re-sold in 1839 to Major Campbell, Mr. Roy, and Captain Symonds.
The settlers on disembarkation, squatted on the ground, but as the company
could not establish their right of purchase, no more emigrants were sent
out, and the settlement never took root. Those already in the Colony were
given lands in other localities, and after twelve years' correspondence the
Colonial Government reported that the Manukau Company were only
entitled to 1,900 acres of land.
111. The next and fourth settlement formed by the New Zealand
Company was Nelson, in Blind Bay. The preliminary expedition sailed
from London in 1841, consisted of two vessels, the "Whitby," and "Will
Watch," under the leadership of Captain Arthur Wakefield, a distinguished
officer in the Royal Navy, who was appointed resident agent. The
"Whitby" and "Will Watch" called at Wellington, remained there a short
time negotiating with Captain Hobson as to the site to be fixed for the
settlement, and sailed for Nelson, October 2, 1841. After cruising through
Cook's Strait the "Whitby," "Will Watch'" and "Arrow" anchored In
the Waikatu (Nelson) in Blind Bay, which was finally fixed upon for the
112. Maketu, a native, murdered Mrs. Roberton, her man servant, and her
family, November 20, 1841, at the Bay of Islands. He confessed his crime,
and was executed at Auckland. ..
113. Bishop Selwyn arrived at Port Nicholson from Auckland, August
12, 1842. His Lordship in replying to an address from the inhabitants,
adverted "to the country now undergoing the great change of colonization, and
remarked that under Divine aid, and the exertions of the British people, New
Zealand would one day be the brightest gem in Britain's crown, her noblest effort
114. Death of the first Governor of New Zealand: Governor Hobson
died of paralysis, at Auckland, 10th September, 1842. His body lies in the
cemetery at Auckland, and in St. Paul's Church, of that city, a marble slab
commemorates in English and Maori, that he was a native of Ireland. On
the coffin was engraved on a handsome plate, "Beneath lie the remains of
WILLIAM HOBSON, ESQ., a Captain in H.M. Royal Navy, and first Governor of
New Zealand, who departed. this life on the 10th September, 1842, aged
115. The Colonial Secretary (Willoughby Shortland) assumed the office
of Acting Governor, but without ceasing to be Colonial Secretary for the time
being, issued a proclamation recapitulating the charter for assumption of the
office of Governor.
116. Early in November, 1842, emigrants arrived at Auckland, the
"Duchess of Argyle," and "Jane Gifford," containing 561 emigrants.
These were the first vessels that had come from England direct to the north,
except the emigrants who arrived at Manukau.
117. At this period the northern settlers, who were daily increasing in
populatIon from Sydney and Van Dieman's Land, were actively engaged in
clearing bush land for cultivation, and in trading with a numerous native
population. The New Zealand Company's settlers were also actively
engaged clearing and cultivating, and settling the country by a large influx
of population direct from Great Britain, and as the country was quite
unknown to the pioneers, numerous enterprising expeditions of discovery
for suitable country to locate the settlers, arriving under the auspices of the
colonizing body -- the New Zealand Company -- were continually carried
out. (See J. H. Wallace's Early History of New Zealand.) The New
Zealaud Company's principal surveyor, Captain W. M. Smith, R.A.,
unfortunately lost his maps, books, journals, and valuable instruments on a
return voyage of discovery to the Middle Island, November, 1842.) E. J.
Wakefield's Adventures in New Zealand, Vol. 2, p. 311.
118. In the beginning of 1843, the turbulent chiefs, Rangihaeta and Te
Rauparaha, gave great uneasiness to the settlers by repeated attempts to
prevent peaceable settlement. The important question of what position the
settlers stood in with regard to Rangihaeta, was set at rest by the Chief
Justice, William Martin, Esq. (afterwards Sir William Martin), refusing to
issue a warrant against the rebel chief. (See the decision of His Honor in J.
H. Wallace's Early History of New Zealand.)
119. Captain Fitzroy, R.N. appointed Governor: Mr. Willoughby Shortland,
who administered the Government after the death of Captain Hobson, was
superseded by Captain Robert Fitzroy, R.N., who was appointed Governor.
This officer's connection with the colony arose from his having visited the
Bay of Islands in Her Majesty's surveymg ship "Beagle," and from having
given evidence in 1838, regarding New Zealand, before the Committee of
the House of Lords.
120. During the month of March, 4, 5, and 6, 1843, a brilliant comet
appeared in the south-west corner of the heavens, and was visible till about
the 17th April, 1843. The comet's tail, as seen from Wanganui, measured
45deg. A comet of this vast magnitude had not appeared, it was generally
stated, since that of 1680. Those who were versed in astronomy asserted
that it was the most brilliant comet that had been seen in ancient or modem
times. The Maoris hailed it as an evil omen and commenced howling
121. 1843, June 18. -- The Wairau massacre: News arrived in Wellington
by the Government brig "Victoria," from Cloudy Bay, of the massacre, at
the Wairau, of Captain Arthur Wakefield, R.N., the leader of the Nelson
colonists, and twenty-one of the Nelson settlers. Great consternation
prevailed at Nelson, when the result of the expedition to the Wairau was
made known, and considerable disorganization ensued among all classes.
Rauparaha and Rangihaeta, the instigators of the massacre, when the affaIr
was over crossed Cook's Strait in their canoes, dreading the vengeance of
the settlers. (The full details of this sad calamity will be found in T. H.
Wallace's Early History of New Zealand.)
122. Effect oi the Wairau conflict in Europe: The settlers demanded
military protection, a settlement of land claims, and an independent
government for Cook's Strait. "The Wairau conflict attracted the attention
of Europe, and created interest in the minds of men who never thought
about the colonies. It completely stopped emigration to New Zealand, called
forth the sympathy of people in difllerent parts of Great Britain, and at
Paris a proposition was made to commence a subscription to enable the
unfortunate settlers to return home. (Galignanis' Messenger, 3rd April, 1844.
123. 1843, July.-- Depressed state of the Colony: The Colony at this
period was in a very depressed state. The addresses from all parts breathed
a spirit of depression, mingled with alarm at the tone and manner of the
natives in regard to the land claims. In the Kororareka address it is stated
"the country has become, beyond example, one general scene of anxiety,
distress, and ruin, so that property has lost its value, personal security has
been at stake, and happinesshas almost ceased to exist." The Cook's Strait
settlers (Spectator, No. 262, July 12, 1843): "The deplorable condition in
which this settlement is (Port Nicholson) in the fourth year of its existence,
compared with what was expected to have been its state by this time, by
those who founded it, is a fact to which it is impossible to shut our eyes."
(J. H. Wallace's Early History of New Zealand.)
124. In December, 1843, Captain Robert Fitzroy, R.N., arrived at
Auckland, and found the Ioeal Government without money or credit, and in
debt more than one year's revenue. There were no means of paying any
salaries, however long in arrear; scarcely could the most pressing and
ordinary payments on account of the Colonial Government be made.
Various local laws, urgently required on account of frequent disputes which
occurred between settlers and natives, had been too long deferred, the
Legislative Couneil not having been assembled during Mr. Shortland's
adtninistration of the Government, or for nearly a year previous to Captain
Hobson's death, during which long interval no measure had even been
prepared by the law officers. The complimentary addresses to the new
Governor from the various settlements, all teemed with expressions of distress
and dissatisfaction. (J. H. Wa1lace' s Early History of New Zealand.)
125. Governor Fitzroy visits Wellington and Nelson: Captain Fitzroy
left Auckland, January 18, 1844, in If.M.S. "North Star," Captain Sir
Everard Home, Bart., and arrived at Wellington, January 27th. From
Wellington, Captain Fitzroy proceeded to Nelson to inquire into the Wairau
conflict. Both at Wellington and Nelson he gave great offence to the
inhabitants, particularly at Nelson, where he publicly rebuked the Magistrates
who signed the warrant for Rauparaha and Rangihaeta's arrest, and stated
that tlie warrant which led to the massacre was informal. This rebuke,
coming from so high a functionary, at a time when the colonists were
mourning the death of their fellow-settlers, produced a deep sensation, and
several Magistrates immediately resigned their commissions. (See ParL
Papers, E. J. Wakefield's Adventures m New Zealand, Fifteenth Report of
New Zealand Company. the Local Papers, and J. H. Wallace's Early History
of New Zealand.)
128. Governor Fitzroy's Land Proclamation: In March, 1844, the
Governor, with a view to conciliate the natives, consented to waive the
Queen's right of pre-emption over certain portions of the country in the
neighbourhood of Auckland. and issued a proclamation permitting private
individuals to purchase direct from the natives on payment of ten shillings
an acre to the Crown, and subsequently, to further allay their dissatisfaction,
on the pymnent of one penny an acre. (Government Gazette, October,
1844.) These arrangements, which were in direct opposition to Acts of
Parliament, whioh forbade the waste lands of the Crown in the Colony being
alienated. at a lower price than twenty shillings an acre, although tacitly
assented to in the first place by tho Imperial Govemment, for fear of alien¬-
ating the natives at the then critical state of the colony, were afterwards
127. The Land Question, 1844: The settlement of all questions connected
with the title to land in New Zealand had been one continued source of
anxiety from the foundation of the Colony.
(to be continued)