(Source: "Manual of New Zealand History" by J. Howard Wallace, First Edition, Wellington, New Zealand, 1886.)
SITUATION AND AREA.
The Colony of New Zealand consists of two islands called the
North and South Islands, and a small island at the southern
extremity called Stewart Island. There are also several small islets,
such as the Chatham and Auckland Isles, that are dependencies of
the colony. The entire group lies between 34 and 48 degrees S. lat. and 166 degrees and
179 degrees E. long. The two principal islands, with Stewart Island, extend in
length, 1,100 miles, but their breadth is extremely variable, ranging from
46 miles to 260 miles, the average being about 140 miles, but no part is
anywhere more distant than 75 miles from the coast.
2. AREA OF THE ISLANDS.
The total area of New Zealand is about 100,000 Square miles or 64,000,000 Acres.
" " the North Island being 44,000 " or 28,160,000 "
" " the South Island being 55,000 " or 35,200,000 "
" " Stewart Island being 1,000" or 640,000 ".
It will thus be seen that the total area of New Zealand is somewhat
less than that of Great Britain and Ireland. The North and South Islands
are separated by a strait only thirteen miles across at the narrowest part,
presenting a feature of the greatest importance from its facilitating
intercommunication between the different coasts without the necessity of
sailing round the extremities of the colony. .
3. The North Island was, up to the year 1876, divided into four provinces,
viz.-- Auckland, Taranaki, Hawkes Bay, and Wellington. Taranaki and
Hawkes Bay lie on the west and east coasts respectively, between the two
more important provinces of Auckland on the north and Wellington
on the south.
4. The South Island was divided into five provinces, viz.-- Nelson, Marl¬-
borough, Canterbury, Otago, and Westland (Southland was for a short time
an independent province). Nelson and Marlborough are in the north,
Canterbury in the centre, Otago in the south, and Westland to the
west of Canterbury,
These provinces, however, in 1876, were divided into sixty-three counties
-- thirty-two in the North Island, and thirty-one in the South Island--and
provincial government ceased to exist.
• From the Hand-book of New Zealand, by Dr. Hector, C.M.G., F.R.S.
NAMES OF COUNTIES.
5. In the North Island. __ Mongonui, Hokianga, Bay of Islands, Whangarei,
Hobson, Rodney, Waitemata, Eden, Manukau, Ooromandel, Thames, Piako,
Waikato, Waipa, Raglan, Kawliia, Taranaki, Patea, Tauranga, Whakatane,
Cook, Wairoa, Hawkes Bay, Wanganui, West Taupo, East Taupo, Rangitikei,
Manawatu, Waipawa, Hutt, Wairarapa West, and Wairarapa East.
8. In the South Island.-- Sounds, Marlborough, Kaikoura, Waimea, Colling¬
wood, Buller, Inangahua, Amuri, Cheviot, Grey, Ashley, Selwyn, Akaroa,
Ashburton, Geraldine, Waimate, Westland, Waitski. Waikouaiti, Maniototo,
Vincent, Lake, Peninsular, Taieri, Bruce, Clutha, Tuapeka, Southland,
Wallace, Fiord, and Stewart Island.
MOUNTAINS AND PLAINS.
7. New Zealand is mountainous, with extensive plains, which in the South
Island lie principally on the eastern side of the mountain-range, while in
the North Island the most extensive lowlands lie on the western side. In
the North Island the interior mountainous parts are covered with dense
forest or low shrubby vegetation; while in the South Island these parts are
chiefly open and well grassed, and are used for pastoral purposes.
8. In the North Island the mountains occupy one-tenth of the surface, and
do not exceed from 1,500 to 4,000 feet in height, with the exception of a few
volcanic mountains that are more lofty, one of which, Tongariro (6,500 feet),
is still occasionally active. Ruapehu (9,100 feet), an Mount Egmont
(8,300 feet) are extinct volcanoes that reach above the limit of perpetual
snow; the latter is surrounded by one of the most extensive and fertile
districts in New Zealand.
9. The mountain-range in the South Island, known as the Southern Alps,
is crossed at intervals by low passes, but its summits reach a height of from
10,000 feet to 12,000 feet, and it has extensive snow-fields and glaciers.
Flanking this mountain-range and occupying its greater valleys are
extensive areas of arable land, which are successfully cultivated from the
sea-level to an altitude of over 2,000 feet.
FIRST SETTLEMENT BY MAORIS.
10. New Zealand appears to have been :first discovered and first peopled by
the Maori race, a remnant of which still inhabits parts of the Islands. At
what time the discovery was made, or from what place the discoverers came,
are matters which are lost in the obscurity which envelopes the history of a
people without letters. Little more can now be gathered from their traditions
than that they were immigrants, and that when they came there were
probably no other inhabitants of the country. Similarity of language
indicates a Polynesian origin, which would prove that they advanced to
New Zealand through various groups of the Pacific islands, in which they
left remains of the same race, who to this day speak the same or nearly the
same tongue. When Cook first visited New Zealand he availed himself of
the assistance of a native from Tahiti, whose language proved to be almost
identical with that of the New Zealanders, and through the medium of
whose interpretation a large amount of the early information respecting the
country and its inhabitants was obtained.
DISCOVERY BY TASMAN.
11. The first European who made the existence of New Zealand known to the
civilised world, and who gave it the name it bears, was Tasman, the Dutch
navigator, who visited it in 1642. Claims to earlier discovery by other
European explorers have been raised, but they are unsupported by any
sufficient evidence. Tasman did not land on any part of the Islands, in
consequence of having had a boat's crew cut off by the natives in the bay
now known as Massacre Bay, but contented himself by sailing along the
western coast of the North Island. and quitted its shores without taking
possession of the country in the name of the Government he served.
VISITED BY CAPTAIN COOK.
12. From the date of Tasman's flying visit to 1769 no stranger is known to
have visited the Islands. In the latter year Captain Cook reached them in
the course of the first of those voyages of great enterprise which have made
his name illustrious. .
The first of Cook's voyages of discovery began in August, 1768, when he
was sent to Tahiti to observe a transit of Venus. After a run of eighty-six
days from Tahiti, having touched at some other places, he sighted the coast
of New Zealand on the 6th of October, 1769. On the 8th he landed in
Poverty Bay, on the east coast of the North Island, which is therefore held
to be the date of the first occupation of the country.
THE NATIVE RACE.
ORIGIN AND TRADITIONAL HISTORY.
13. There is nothing on record respecting the origin of the Maori people;
but their arrival in New Zealand, according to tradition, is due to an event
which, from its physical possibility, and from the concurrent testimony of
the various tribes, is probably true in its main facts.
14. The tradition runs that generations ago a large migration took place
from a distant island, to which the Maoris give the name of Hawaiki. Quarrels
among the natives drove from Hawaiki a chief, whose canoe arrived upon
the shore of the North Island of New Zealand. Returning to his home
with a flattering description of the country he had discovered, this chief, it
is said, set on foot a scheme of immigration, whereupon a fleet of large
double canoes started for the new land. The names of most of the canoes
are still remembered, and each tribe agrees in its account of the doings of
the people of the principal "canoes" after their arrival in New Zealand;
and from these traditional accounts the descent of the numerous tribes has
been traced. Calculations based on the genealogical staves kept by the
tohungas, or priests, indicate that about twenty-seven generations have
passed since the migration, which. would give for its date about the
beginning of the fourteenth century. The position of Hawaiki is not
known, but there are several islands of this or a somewhat similar name.
NATIVE POPULATION, NORTH ISLAND.
15. The North Island is now supposed to contain a native population of
about 42,000, divided into many tribes; but their number is probably
very largely over-estimated.
18. The most important tribe is that of the Ngapuhi, who inhabit the
northern portion of the North Island, in the provincial district of Auckland. It
was among the Ngapuhi that the seeds of Christianity and of civilization were
first sown, and among them are found the best evidences of the progress
which the Maori can make. Forty-six years ago the only town in New Zealand,
Kororareka, in the Bay of Islands, existed within their territory. Their
chiefs, assembled in February, 1840, near the Waitangi ("Weeping Water")
Falls, were the first to sign the treaty by which the Maoris acknowledged
themselves to be subjects of Her Majesty; and although, under the
leadership of an ambitious chief, Honi Heke, a portion of them in 1845
disputed the English supremacy, yet after being subdued by English troops
and their native allies (the Ngapuhi's own kinsmen) they adhered implicitly
to the pledges they gave, and since then not a shadow of doubt has been
cast on the fidelity of the "loyal Ngapuhi."
NATIVE POPULATION, SOUTH ISLAND.
17. The South Island natives number but about 2,000, and they are spread
over an immense tract of country, living in groups of a few families, on the
reserves made for them when the lands were purchased; for the whole of the
South Island has been bought from the native owners by the Government.
Whatever may be the cause, it is a fact that the natives of the South Island
are less restless and excitable than their brethren in the North.
18. As a rule the Maoris are middle-sized and well formed, the average
height of the men being 5 feet 6 inches; the bodies and arms are longer than
those of the average.Englishman, but the leg bones are shorter, and the calves
largely developed. In bodily powers the Englishman has the advantage.
As a carrier of heavy burdens the native is the superior, but in exercises
of strength and endurance the average Englishman surpasses the average
19. The colony was formerly divided into nine Provinces. each of which had
an elective Superintendent, and a Provincial Council, also elective. In each
case the election was for four years, but a dissolution of the Provincial
Council by the Governor could take place at any time, necessitating a fresh
election both of the Council and the Superintendent. The Superintendent
was chosen by the electors of the whole province; the members of the
Provincial Council by those of electoral districts.
20. As has been already mentioned, this form of government was abolished
1876, and the country was then divided into Counties and Road Board
Districts; and to the County Councils and Municipalities the local adminis-¬
tration formerly executed by the Provincial Governments is confided. The
seat of Government was at Auckland up to the year 1865, when it
was transferred to Wellington on account of the more central position
of the latter place.
FORM OF GOVERNMENT.
21. Executive power is vested in a Governor appointed by the Queen, who
acts in accordance with the principles of responsible Government. Legislative
power is vested in the Governor and two Chambers: one called the Legislative
Council, consisting at present of forty-nine members, nominated by the
Governor for life; and the other the House of Representatives, elected by
the people from time to time, and now consisting of ninety-six members.
Until 1882 the House of Representatives was elected for five years, but by
an Act passed in 1879 its normal term of service is now limited to a period
of three years, which, however, may be shortened if the Governor should
see fit to exercise his prerogative of dissolving it.
Except in matters of purely Imperial concern, the Governor, as a rule,
acts on the advice of his Ministers. He has power to dismiss them and
appoint others, but the ultimate control rests with the representatives of the
people, who hold the strings of the public purse.
ELECTORAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE.
22. Any man of twenty-one years and upwards,who is a born or naturalized
British subject, and who has held for six months a freehold of the clear
value of £25, or who has resided for one year in the colony, and in an
electoral district during the six months immediately preceding the registra-¬
tion of his vote, is now, according to an Act passed in 1879, entitled to be
registered as an elector and to vote for the election of a member of the
House of Representatives; also, every male Maori of the same age whose
name is enrolled upon a ratepayers' roll, or who has a freehold estate of
the clear value of £25. And, by another Act passed on the same day, the
duty is imposed upon the Registrar of each electoral district of placing on
the electoral roll the names of all persons who are qualified to vote. Any
person qualified to vote for the election of a member of the House of
Representatives is also, generally speaking, qualified to be himself elected a
member of that House. There are, however, certain special disqualifications
for membership, such as grave crime, bankruptcy, and paid office (other than
what is called political) in the colonial service. Four of the members of the
House are Maoris, elected under a special law by Maoris alone.
23. The Colonial Legislature, which as a rule meets once a year, has
power generally to make laws for the peace, order, and good government of
New Zealand. The Acts passed by it are subject to disallowance by the
Queen, and in a very few cases are required to be reserved for the signification
or the pleasure of Her Majesty, but there have not been, in the course of the
twenty-seven years since the Constitution was granted, more than half a
dozen instances of disallowance or refusal of assent. The Legislature has
also, with a. few exceptions, ample power to modify the Constitution of the
colony. Executive power is administered, as before stated, in accordance
with the usage of Responsible Government as it exists in the United
Legislation concerning the sale and disposal of Crown lands, and the
occupation of the gold fields, is exclusively vested in the Colonial Parliament.
There are in most towns in the colony municipal bodies, such as Mayors
and Town Councils in England, invested with ample powers for sanitary and
other municipal purposes; and there are in various country districts elective
Road Boards charged with the construction and repair of roads and bridges,
and with other local matters. There are also Central and Local Boards of
Health appointed under a Public Health Act, which have authority to act
vigorously, both in towns and in the country, for the prevention and
suppression of dangerous and infectious diseases.
24. The above short summary of the system of government in New
Zealand suffices to show that the leading characteristics of the British
Constitution -- self government and localized self-administration -- are pre-¬
served and, in fact, extended under the New Zealand Constitution; that
there is ample power to regulate its institutions, and to adapt them from
time to time to the growth and progress of the colony, and to its varied
requirements; and that it is the privilege of every colonist to take a personal
part to some extent, either as elector or elected, in the conduct of public
affairs and in the promotion of the welfare of the community.
CHRONOLOGICAL HISTORY OF NEW ZEALAND,
FROM ITS DISCOVERY UNTIL THE PRESENT DATE.
25. The discovery of New Zealand has been ascribed to several of the
early European navigators.
26. Three European nations claim for their navigators the honour of
discovering New Zealand. Frenchmen assert that Binot Paulmier de
Gouneville, of Harfleur, in Normandy, visited the country in 1504. "The
Maoris retain a tradition of the arrival of a ship, commanded by one
Rongotute, about 1640, and that they plundered the ship and destroyed the
crew." The Spaniards claim for Juan Fernandez the credit of the discovery.
27. Birth and Name of New Zealand.-- The name of New Zealand first
appears, as a record, on a piece of sculpture, consisting of two hemispheres
representing a map of the world, cut in stone by the eminent sculptor
Artus Quellinus, as an embellishment for the new Stadt House, built at
Amsterdam in 1648 by Van Kampen, to replace the original House burnt
in 1642. This sculpture, valuable, not only as a work of art, but especially
as depicting the most recent geographical discoveries made up to that date
by the Dutch and other navigators in the Indian and Pacific Oceans,
formed the pavement of the Great Hall of the new building, the most public
place of resort therein; and consequently the map became soon so completely
obliterated by the constant tread of feet that not a trace of it could be
found in 1773, when sought for by Sir Joseph Banks, nor did the oldest
inhabitant retain any memory of it; but a tracing of the most important
part of it has been preserved by M. Thevenot, and thereon appears the name
of New Holland for the western part of Australia, and Terre Australe for
the eastern, whilst further to the east is shown Tasman's Staaten Land with
the name of "Zealandia Nova." (Index to the Laws of New Zealand fifth
edition, by John Cumin, B.A., of the Inner Temple, Wellington 1885,
pages 1 and 2).
28. It is, however, generally acknowledged that the first authentic
information made public concerning it was derived from the famous voyage
of discovery undertaken by Tasman in 1642. Tasman left Batavia, August
14, 1642, with two ships -- the "Heemskirk" and the "Zechaan" -- and
after discovering the southern part of what is now known as Van Dieman's
Land, he voyaged onwards in an easterly direction, in the hope of making
further discoveries, and on the 18th December of the same year anchored in
a bay in the South Island of New Zealand, now known as Golden Bay to
the westward of Blind Bay at the head of which stands the town of Nelson.
The natives attacked him in canoes, and in consequence of three of his
boat's crew being killed by the natives, he named the scene of this disaster
Moordenaer's (Murderer's) Bay, and from thence until recently called
Massacre Bay. The designation of Nova Zealandia was given by Tasman to
the new found territory. Tasman did not re-visit New Zealand; and from
the date of his voyage to the year 1769, no account exists of any vessel
having sighted its shores.
29. On the accession of George III. to the throne of Great Britain
20th October 1760, a new era commenced in the history of English maritime
discovery. His Majesty speedily manifested a strong desire for the
acquisition of geographical and scientific knowledge. The voyages of Byron,
and Wallis, and Carteret, were undertaken under the immediate auspices of
the King; and the discoveries made by them when sailing homeward from
the South Pacific, through the Straits of Magellan, and across the Pacific
Ocean out of the track of former voyages, strongly stimulated the public
curiosity respecting the Terra Australis incognita.
30. In 1767 the Royal Society resolved that it would be proper to send
duly qualified persons into some part of the South Sea, to observe the transit
of Venus over the sun's disc, which it was calculated would happen in the
year 1769, but having no means of defraying the expenses of such an
expedition, they communicated their resolution to His Majesty King
George III., requesting his aid in carrying it into execution.
3l. The "Endeavour," a barque of 370 tons, was fitted out and placed
under the command of Lieutenant James Cook, who had distinguished
himself in Canada, and in surveying the coast of Newfoundland.
31A. A short description of the appearance of the "Endeavour": She
had the usual broad floor, and round tumbling-in sides that gave much
carrying power, with slight draught of water. The decks had greater shear
or hollowness amidships, the quarter-deck being above the waist, and the
poop rising above the quarter-deck. The high taffrail culminated in a
gigantic fixed lantern, without which no vessel's appearance was then
considered respectable." (Chapman's Centenary Memorial, Auckland,
1870, p. x.)
32. The "Endeavour" sailed from Plymouth on the 26th August, 1768;
anchored at Tahiti, 13th April, 1769. An observatory, with a small fort for
its protection, was erected in 17 deg. 29 min. 15 sec. south latitude, and
149 deg. 32 min. 30 sec. west longitude; and on the 3rd June, the whole
passage of the planet over the sun's disc was observed to great advantage,
the sky being cloudless from sunrise to sunset, The first appearance of
Venus on the sun was perceived. at 9 hours 25 minutes 42 seconds a.m., and
at 3 hours 32 minutes 10 seconds p.m. the planet had completed its long
33. The calculations of the astronomers of the Royal Observatory,
founded upon the observations made by Captain Cook of the transit of
Venus, as seen at Tahiti, and of the planet Mercury afterwards, at Mercury
Bay, in New Zealand (see par. 34), resulted in the mean distance of the earth
from the sun being fixed at 94,879,956 miles, which recent observations have
shown to be excessive. This. however, was inevitable, looking to the
imperfect instruments then used. .
34. After leaving Tahiti, Captain Cook discovered the Society Islands,
and then sailed to the southward. On the 6th of October, 1769, land was
seen from the masthead, and the following day four or five ranges of hills
rising one above the other, with a chain of mountains towering above all,
were distinctly perceptible. From Cook's Voyages, vol. 2, page 283.
Eaheinomauwe, or North Island. Friday, October 6th, saw land first time.
On Sunday, October 8, 1869 [sic -- 1769?], at 4 p.m., Captain Cook cast anchor in the Bay
of Turanga, an inlet on the east coast of the North. Island. After some
days spent in attempting to conciliate the natives, during which several
encounters with them took place, he left this locality, which he named
Poverty Bay, and sailed to the southward, landing at Mercury Bay, to
observe the transit of the planet Mercury. Friday, November 3rd, 1769, in
Mercury Bay, a desolate and barren place, Captain Cook cut on a tree near
the watering place, the ship's name, with the year and month of his visit,
and after displaying the English colours, took formal possession of it in
the name of George Ill.
35. He took his departure thence for Tolaga Bay, the Hauraki Gulf, the
River Thames, and the Bay of Islands. He then sailed round Cape Maria
Van Dieman, coasted along the western shore of the North Island, and
sighted and named the picturesque snow-capped mountain, at the base of
which the English settlement of Taranaki now stands, Mount Egmont. He
then touched at Queen Charlotte's Sound, Cape Palliser, and Hawkes Bay,
passing through the strait between the two main islands, which now bear his
name -- Cook's Strait.
36. On Tuesday, 30th January, 1770, Captain Cook, being then in Ship
Cove, in Queen Charlotte's Sound, caused two poles to be made, and on each
the name of the ship was inscribed, with the date of his visit; and erecting
one at the watering place, he carried the other over to Motuara, and placing
it there hoisted the Union flag, and took formal possession of the inlet and
adjacent country in the name of George IIl., giving to the inlet the name
of Queen Charlotte's Sound.
37. From Queen Charlotte's Sound he sailed down the coasts of the South
and of Stewarts Island, without discovering the channel by which they are
separated, turned the South Cape, and traced the opposite shores back to
Cook's Strait; giving to the north-west extremity of the Middle Island the
name of Cape Farewell, he took his departure from thence for England on
Saturday, 31st March, 1770; thus ended his first visit. Cook's original chart
of New Zealand as explored by him -- 1769 and 1770 -- names the North
Island Eaheinomauwe, and the South Island Tavai-Poenamoo. The
insularity of Stewart's Island was not then known. These names originated
thus: When the great navigator asked the natives the name of the North
Island, he was told that it was "A thing fished from the sea by Maui."
He mea hi no Maui; and that the Middle Island was Te wahi pounamu, or
"The place of the greenstone." (Thomson, Vol. i., p. 4).
38. The South Island (Rakiura) was named Stewart's Island in honour
of the sealer who, in 1808, discovered its insularity.
39. De Surville, a French naval officer, was the next navigator who
visited New Zealand. When Cook's ship, the "Endeavour," was working
out of Doubtless Bay, in December 1769, in the North Island, De
Surville's vessel, the "St. Jean Baptiste," from India, was sailing in, and
neither navigator was aware of the other's vicinity. (Thomson v., 1, 232.
Abbe Rochon's Voyages, 1791.
40. On the 11th May 1772, Marion de Fresne, another French seaman,
anchored his two ships -- the "Marquis de Castries" and the "Mascarin" ~
between Te Wal-iti Whais Island and the Motu Arohia (the Motuaro of
navigators), in the Bay of Islands. On the 12th June an attack was made by
the natives, and De Fresne and twenty-seven of the crew were killed. Crozet
second in command of the ship "Mascarin" inflicted terrible punishment
on the natives for these murderous attacks. (See J. H. Wallace's Early
History of New Zealand),
41. Captain Cook paid a second visit to New Zealand in the "Resolution,"
and on Thursday, the 25th March, 1773, land was first seen. Captain
Furneaux joined Captain Cook with the "Adventure," in Queen Charlotte's
Sound, where they left goats, pigs, seeds, &c., with natives, and on the 7th
of June, 1773, both vessels left the Sound, thus terminating Cook's
42. His third visit took place in October, 1773. He first made the land
on the 21st October, at Table Cape, and bearing away under Portland, made
Cape Kidnappers. A number of natives came on board, and Cook gave
them some pigs, and garden seeds. The natives remembered the visit of the
"Endeavour" in 1770. After sailing down the coast and passing Cape
Campbell, the "Resolution" anchored in Ship Cove, Queen Charlotte's
Sound. On Thursday 26th, he left the Sound, and on the 26th November
passed Cape Palliser, and stood out to sea, thus ending his third visit.
43. He again visited the Islands in October, 1774, seeing Mount Egmont.
at day-break on the 17th, which he found covered with snow. He then
proceeded to Ship Cove, and thoroughly explored Queen Charlotte's Sound.
He left on the 11th November, 1774, and arrived in England, July 29, 1776.
44. Captain Cook again visited. New Zealand in 1777. Monday, 10th
February made Rock's Point. Tuesday, 11th, and Wednesday, 12th, passed
Cape Farewell, Stephens Island, and anchored in Ship Cove, Queen
Charlotte Sound. Tawritrarooa, a native, described a vessel which he said
had visited New Zealand before Cook had put into port, on the north-west
coast of Terrawitte (Terawhiti), a few years before he arrived in the Sound
in the "Endeavour," 1769. Tuesday 26th February, weighed and stood out
of the Sound, and through the Strait, 'thus ending the fifth and last visit.
45. During these visits Captain Cook had much intercourse with the
natives, both on shore and on shipboard, and at each visit introduced several
useful plants and animals. In 1777, he found some fine potatoes and useful
vegetables grown from the seeds introduced by him on his first visit.
45A. "Cook's old ship, the "Discovery," was some time since removed
from Woolwich, and is now (August 20, 1834) moored off Deptford as a
receiving ship for convicts." (Robertson's Circum. Globe, p. 409.)
48. New Zealand remained unvisited by any European ships from 1777
to 1791, when Captain Vancouver touched at Dusky Bay, while engaged on
an expedition to survey and explore the north-west coast of America. About
this time also an intercourse sprang up with the newly formed British
settlement at Sydney, and various whaling and sealing ships began shortly
afterwards to frequent these shores.
47. The first intercourse between New South Wales and New Zealand,
commenced in May, 1793. when Captain King, Governor of New South
Wales, sent a vessel to cruise about the New Zealand coast, to procure
natives to teach the English at Norfolk Island to dress the flax (Phormium
tenax), which abounds there as in New Zealand. Two natives were enticed
on board, and were returned to their homes after a six month's detention.
(Lieutenant Collins' History of New South Wales, London, 1804, p. 341.)
. 48. Admiral D'Entrecasteaux, when searching for La Perouse arrived
off New Zealand in 1793. "In 1785, La Perouse sailed from France for the
Pacific, with the "Boussole," and "Astrolabe" under his command, and
was last heard of from Botany Bay, in March, 1788. Several expeditions
were subsequently despatched in search of Perouse, but no certain informa¬-
tion was obtained until captain Dillon, of the East India. ship "Research,"
ascertained that the French ships had been cast away on the New Hebrides,
authenticated by articles which he brought to Calcutta, 9th April, 1828."
(Haydn's Dictionary of Dates, London, 1881, p, 466.) .
49. In 1771, Benjamin Franklin and Mr. Dalrymple proposed, "That a
ship should be filled with various useful articles, and sent to trade with the
natives of New Zealand, a proposition indicative of the accurate judgment
the philosopher had formed of the character of the people." (Dodsley's
Annual Register, 1771). This paper is dated August 29, 1771, and may be
found among Franklin's "Miscellaneous Works."
50. Excepting in the sole instance of an English sailor, who lived for
some years among the natives -- about the year 1804-7-- there is no record
of other white men having lived on shore, between the years 1793 and 1814.
NOTE.-- "In 1823, Tippahee (Te Pehi, the brother of Rauparaha) carried
out with him the first European, who probably ever took up his abode in
New Zealand, a young man named George Bruce." (The New Zealanders,
London, Nattali, 1847, p. 63; also J. H. Wallace's Early History of
51. Intercourse with the natives: As early as 1793, the whaling ships of
different nations began to touch on the coast. Their intercourse was marked.
by great cruelty and injustice on the one part, great treachery and dishonesty
on the other, and a revolting blood-thirstiness and strong spirit of revenge
on both sides.
52. In 1805, Mr. Savage, an English surgeon, took the first New
Zealander to Great Britain; his name was Mohanger. Matara, a son of
Te Pehi, visited England in 1807. Ruatara visited England 1809.
53. In the year 1809, occurred the massacre of crew and passengers of the
ship "Boyd," 500 tons, captain Thompson. This vessel started from Sydney
for England, with the intention of touching at Wangaroa, for spars. She
carried seventy Europeans, and five New Zealanders, who were shipped to
work their passages to their own country. The captain and a considerable
number of the crew were killed and eaten; and all left on board, save one
woman, two children, and a cabin boy, shared the same fate. The lad was
saved by George (a native) in gratitude for a trifling kindness, and the
woman and children preserved themselves by concealment. These Europeans
were rescued from the natives by Te Pehi and Mr. Berrey, the supercargo of
the ship "City of Edinburgh," then taking in spars at the Bay of Islands.
(See Berrey's narrative, Constable's Miscellany, vol. iv, pp. 350-351; also
the Sydney Morning Herald.)
54. The native "George," the instigator of the horrid massacre of the
"Boyd," was seen by captain Cruise (of the 84th Regiment Foot), in 1820,
when the "Dromedary" went to the Bay of Islands. He states "'George'
was detested by his people." (Cruise's Journal, pp. 271-272.)
55. The scenes of barbarism enacted between the Europeans and Maoris
had attracted general attention, and led to the establishment of a Mission
station at the Bay of Islands.
55A. The Reverend Samuel Marsden, Colonial Chaplain of New South
Wales -- the first Missionary to New Zealand -- landed at the Bay of Islands,
58. In 1814, a proclamation published in the Government Gazette
Sydney, appointed Mr. Thomas Kendall, and the chiefs Ruatara, Hongi, and
Koro Koro, magistrates for the Bay of Islands, to suppress outrages.
57. The appointment of Mr. Kendall as Resident Magistrate, at the Bay
of Islands was the commencement of British authority in New Zealand.
(to be continued)